• M. Arshad Chemistry Division, Directorate of Science, PINSTECH, P.O.Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • K. Masud NLP, P.O.Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan


The sensible sources (namely; corn, wheat, barley, oat and rye) and molasses (procured from the local market of Rawalpindi), following enzymatic hydrolysis were subjected to fermentation to produce high fiber protein (HFP) and liquid protein as a by-product. The former can be used for human consumption and the later was considered fit for animal feed. Carbon dioxide gas produced during fermentation can be used as gas in beverages or converted into dry ice. Malt husk (spent grain) left behind as a result of waste has utilization for poultry and dairy farm. Ethanol produced was converted into high power alcohol and a comparison of its characteristics with those of natural fuels was made. The high power alcohol was transformed into high power fuel (gellified material) by the interaction with potassium salts of the isopropylidene derivatives of carbohydrates. The potassium salt of the isopropylidene derivative of carbohydrate was prepared in two stages: first, derivative of carbohydrates was synthesized by the interaction of carbohydrates with acetone; the derivative so produced was further treated with chlorosulphonic acid in the presence of potassium carbonate, to produce potassium salt of the derivative of carbohydrates. The fermentation mash may be consumed as a non-alcoholic drink after addition of flavor.


W. L. Allen (editor- in-chief), Official Journal

of the National Geographic Society,

Washington, D. C. 20036-4688, USA, vol.

, No. 05, May (2001).

R. S. Goodrich, Chem. Eng. Prog.

Jan.(1982) 29.

Lipinsky, Sugar Crops as Source of Fuels,

, Final Report. Battelle Columbus Division,

Aug., (1978) 31.

M. Kirk, Utilization of Ethanol as a Farm

Fuel, College of Environmental Science and

Forestry, Syracuse, New York (1983).

M. A. Clarke, “Alternate Uses for Sugarcane

and its Productâ€, Paper presented at Winter

meeting of ASAE(1979).

World Bank: Alcohol Production from

Biomass in the Developing Countries,


S. I. Ahmad, I. Ahmad and A. Pervez:

Potentials and Prospects of Power Alcohol

Production from Molasses in Pakistan,

report NARC, Islamabad (1987) and

references therein.

Vogel’s Text book of Practical Organic

Chemistry, 6th edn. English Language Book

Society, Longman London (1992) 369.

Official Methods of Analysis of the

Association of Official Agricultural Chemists

(AOAC) 10th edn. Association of Official

Agricultural Chemists, Washington (1988).

AACC Approved Methods, American

Association of Cereal Chemists, St.Paul,

Minnesota, USA (1976).

P. Pearson, The Chemical Analysis of Food,

Churchill Livingstone Griffiths 62 (1937) 510.

G. O. Burr and R. H. Barnes, Physiological

Rev. 23 (1943) 256.

M. Richards, The Brewers Digest, August


A. D. Rudin: Proceedings of the 21st

congress of the European Brewery

Convention, Madrid, Brewers’ Guardian Dec.

-17, Mamsky, C.H. (1976).

H. M. Broderick: “The Practical Brewer,

Manual for the Brewing Industry†6th edn.

Master Brewers Association of the American

(MBAA) Madison (1994) and references


J. S. Hough, D. E. Briggs and R.Stevens:

“Malting and Brewing Scienceâ€, Chapter 14,

Chapman and Hall, London (1971)

J. R. Hudson and H. Remmie: “Wort Boiling,

A Review†MBAA Tech. Quart. 8, No. 4


J. D. Clerck: “A Textbook of Brewingâ€, Vol.

, Chapt. 14 Chapman and Hall, New York


A. H. Burgess: “Hopsâ€, Interscience Pub.,

Inc., N.Y.(1964).

L. Lampiren and D. S. Young, MBAA Tech.

Quart. 10(1973) 172.

F. Hlavacek: “Brewers Yeastsâ€, VEB,

Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig, Germany (1961).

H. V. Grunenberg, C. Bredt and W.

Frendenberg, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60 (1938)

A. Ault, W. N. Haworth and E. L. Hirst, J.

Chem. Soc. (1935)51.

O. T. Schmidt and A. Simon, J. Prakt.

Chem. 152 (1939) 190.

F. Blindenbacher and T. Reichstein, Helv.

Chim. Acta 31 (1948) 1669.

C. L. Mehltretter, B. H. Alexander, R. L.

Mellies and C. E. Rist, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,

(1951) 2424.

A. L. Raymond and E. F. Schroeder, J. Am.

Chem. Soc. 70 (1948) 2765.

C. E. Ballou and H. O. L. Fischer, J. Am.

Chem. Soc. 76 (1948) 3188.

C. E. Ballou, Biochem. Preparations 5


H. Ohle, Ger. 499,147 Oct., 1 (1927).

H. Ohle, US, 1,783,133, Nov. 25(1930).

T. Govett, N. J. Summit and L. Mildred, US,

,645,616 July 14 (1953).

C. A. Cofman, G. Nicoresti, GBrit 326, 447


W. G. Grewther, Aus. J. Sci. Res. 85 (1952)

Science and Technology Illustrated,

Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Tokyo (1984).

McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and

Technology, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill Book

Company New York (1987).

D. I. Wang, C. L. Cooney, A. L. Demain, P.

Dunnill, A. E. Humphrey, M. D. Lilly,

Fermentation and Enzyme Technology,

John Wiley and Sons, New York (1979).

D. E. Eveleigh, Scientific American 245

(1981) 159.

U. Kofler and M. L. Wulf (eds.),

Developments in Industrial Microbiology, 3rd

edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc.,

New York (1981).

S. C. Prescott and C. G. Dunn:“Industrial

Microbiologyâ€, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill

Book Company Inc., New York (1959) 109.

M. Yudkin and R. Offord: “Comprehensive

Biochemistryâ€, Longman Group Ltd. (1973)

L. L. Ingraham: “Biochemical Mechanismâ€,

John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York


J. R. Holum: “Introduction to Organic and

Biological Chemistryâ€, John Wiley and Sons

Inc. New York (1969).

H. G. Bungenberg de Jong: “Colloid

Scienceâ€, vol. 11, Elsevier Publishing Co.,

Amsterdam, New York (1949).

J. D. Ferry, Adv. Protein Chem. 4, No. 1


Y. S. Lipatov and N. F. Proshlyakova, Usp.

Khim. 30 (1961) 517 ; Russ. Chem. Rev.

(Engl. Transl.) 30 (1961) 219.

K. J. Mysels: Introduction to Colloid

Chemistry, Interscience Publishers Inc. New

York (1959) 206.

I. Labadi, G. Liptay, A. Horvath, L. Koreez,

S. Papp and K. Burger, J. Therm. Anal. 32

(1987) 1575.

R. M. Silverstein, G. C. Basler and T. C.

Morrill, Spectroscopic Identification of

Organic Compounds, 4th edn., John Wiley

and Sons, New York (1981).

The Sadtler Standard Spectra Published by

Sadtler Res. Labs. Philadelphia, 2, PA 5

(1974) 5991.

K. Nakamoto, Infrared Spectra of Inorganic

and Coordination Compounds, John Wiley

and Sons, New York (1965).




How to Cite

M. Arshad and K. Masud, “THE PROSPECTS OF SENSIBLE SOURCES AS HIGH POWER FUEL AND HIGH FIBER PROTEIN”, The Nucleus, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 301–313, Dec. 2011.