Design and Implementation of Line Follower Robot Based on Single Pole Double Through Relay by Using Microcontroller


  • A.B. Taj National University of Technology (NUTECH), Sector I-12, IJP road Islamabad, Pakistan
  • M. Ahmad PRESTON University, Kohat, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan


The aim of this work is to achieve an efficient control design for the line follower robot based on Single Pole Double Through (SPDT) relays by using PROTEUS professional software and its practical implementation. It followed a white line on the black background, detects turns or nonconformities, and operates the motors very efficiently by using the microcontroller. Infrared (IR) sensors are used to sense the white line (path). Differential directing was utilized to turn ON the robot. In this article, we have the voltage from the comparator by using the IR sensors. Microcontroller AT89C51 reads the voltage from comparator and operates the relays and these relays further operate the Direct Current (DC) motors. Each rear wheel has a dedicated DC motor while the front wheel is free to rotate. The design and hardware implementation with microcontroller are presented in this paper. Multiple tests were carried out on the robot for validation of the ability to follow the white line by adopting the accurate path and successfully achieving the target. It is worth mentioning that the robot has successfully achieved the target by using the AT89C51 microcontroller.


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How to Cite

A. Taj and M. Ahmad, “Design and Implementation of Line Follower Robot Based on Single Pole Double Through Relay by Using Microcontroller”, The Nucleus, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 61–67, Oct. 2022.




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