• N. Akhtar Health Physics Division, NIAB, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • M. Tufail PIEAS, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • M. A. Choudhry Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • S. D. Orfi Health Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • M. Waqas Department of Earth Sciences, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan


Natural Radioactivity originates from extraterrestrial sources as well as from radioactive elements in the earth’s crust. The amount of radioactivity in soil varies widely and is a source of continuous exposure to human beings. Amount of radioactivity in soil depends upon the type of soil and its uses. For the investigation of amount of radioactivity in the fertile soil, an area of about 100 hectares of land was selected in NIAB (Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology) at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Soil samples were collected from the cultivated and fertilized land. Activity concentration was measured using a HPGe (high purity germanium) ï§ ray detector and a PC based MCA. Specific activity levels due to 40K, 137Cs, 226Ra and 232Th were determined in 125 fertilized soil samples collected at a spacing of about 4 hectares at the depth level of 0–25 cm with a step of 5 cm depth. Activity concentration of the concerned radionuclides for the NIAB soil is: 40K, 614.4670.7 Bqkg-1; 137Cs, 2.13.1 Bqkg-1; 226Ra, 28.632.6 Bqkg-1; and 232Th, 51.660.3 Bqkg-1. Chemical analysis for concentration of Na, Ca and Mg was also carried out along with the measurement of electrical conductivity and pH of the soil samples. The absorbed dose in air at NIAB Farm is 75 nGyh-1 which is higher than the world average of 57 nGyh-1 but lies within the range (18-93) nGyh-1.


UNSCEAR “Sources, effects and risks of ionization radiationâ€, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Report to the General assembly, with Annexes, New York (2000).

M. Tufail, N. Ahmad, M.S. Zafer, M.S. Siddiqui, M.S. Sarwar, S. Ali and S. Almakly, The Arab. J. Sci. & Engg., 8 (1993) 353.

C.S. Zahid, M.K. Hasan, M. Aslam, K. Khan, A. Jabbar and S. D. Orfi, The Nucleus, 36 (1999) 201.

IAEA, “Measurement of radionuclides in food and environmentâ€, IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 295 (1989).

C.S. Zahid, M.K. Hasan, M. Aslam, S. Iqbal, and S.D. Orfi, The Nucleus, 38 (2001) 101.

WASID, “Soil Survey of Pakistanâ€, WAPDA, (1968).

N.C. Brady, “The nature and properties of soils†(10th edition), Macmillan, London (1990) 243–246.

N. Akhtar, M.A. Chaudhry, M. Tufail, M.M. Iqbal and S.D. Orfi, J. of Research (Science), Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan, 14 (2003) 49.

B.N. Hamid, M.I. Chowdhury, M.N. Aslam and M.N. Islam, Radiat. Protect. Dosim., 98 (2002) 227.

UNSCEAR, “Sources, effects and risk of ionizing radiationâ€, United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation, New York (1988).

K. Khan, H.M. Khan, M. Tufail and N. Ahmad, Nucl. Sci. J., 34 (1997) 455.

F. Habshi, “The recovery of uranium from phosphate rock: Progress and problemsâ€, Proceeding of the 2nd International Congress on Phosphorus Compounds, Institute Mondial du phosphate, Paris (1980) 629-660.

A. Hussain, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 188 (1994) 255.

T.M. Bhatti and K.A. Malik, “Phosphate fertilizers a potential source for uranium recovery as by-productâ€, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE) Faisalabad, Technical Report No PAEC/NIBGE-2/1994.

S. Selvasekarapandia, R. Sivakumar, N.M. Manikendan, V. Meenakshisundaram and V. Gajendran, Appl. Radiat. Isot., 52 (2000) 299.




How to Cite

N. Akhtar, M. Tufail, M. A. Choudhry, S. D. Orfi, and M. Waqas, “RADIATION DOSE FROM NATURAL AND MANMADE RADIONUCLIDES IN THE SOIL OF NIAB, FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN”, The Nucleus, vol. 41, no. 1-4, pp. 27–34, Jul. 2020.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>