INSECT PESTS MANAGEMENT OF BT COTTON THROUGH THE MANIPULATION OF DIFFERENT ECO-FRIENDLY TECHNIQUES
AbstractThis study was designed to manage insect pests of Bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques. A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of different treatments reflected that lowest population of jassids (0.29) was observed in bio-control treated Bt cotton followed by bio-control treated conventional cotton (0.41). Mean per leaf population of thrips was found lowest in insecticide treated Bt cotton (0.97) which was statically at par with bi-control treated conventional cotton (0.95), biocontrol treated Bt cotton (1.09) and colour traps treated Bt cotton (1.50). In case of whiteflies, bio-control treated Bt cotton and bio-control treated conventional cotton again proved effective in maintaining the population at lower levels per leaf (0.33 and 0.35 respectively). No bollworms infestation was recorded in transgenic cotton whereas higher attack of the same was observed in the untreated conventional cotton block. The best results were achieved with the application of bio-control agents in combination with Bt cotton resulting in least infestation by insect pests and maximum seed yield of 3657 kg/ha. The population of Chrysoperla carnea was significantly higher in Bt and conventional cotton treated with bio-control agents as compared to the other treatments. The parasitism percentage of Trichogramma chilonis was observed significantly higher in bio-control treated conventional cotton. The studies manifested that combination of bio-control technology with Bt cotton effectively preserves the local beneficial insect fauna indicating its potential to be used as integrated management system against different insect pests of cotton.
Anonymous, Agricultural Statistics of
Pakistan, Govt. Pak., Min. Food, Agric.
(Economic wing), Islamabad, Pakistan (2010)
Anonymous, Economic Survey of Pakistan.
Govt. Pak., Min. Food, Agric. Livest.,
Islamabad, Pakistan (2006) 11-12.
M. Manjunath, Bt cotton in India: The
technology wins as the controversy wanes.
http:// www. Monsanto.co.uk/news/ukshowlib.
S.K. Ghosh and G.M. Crops, Curr. Sci. 84
J. Sutherland and P. Guy, Can Transgenic
Crop Technology Benefit Biocontrol? ISB
News Report, School of Biological Sciences
University of Southampton Southampton,
United Kingdom (2004).
G. Head, M. Moar, M. Eubanks, B. Freeman,
J. Ruberson, A. Hagerty and S. Turnipseed,
Environ. Entomol. 34 (2005) 1257.
G. P. Fitt, P. J. Wakelyn, J. Stewart, C.
James, D. Roupakias, K. Hake, Y. Zafar, J.
Pages and M. Giband, Global Status and
Impacts of Biotech Cotton. Report of the
second expert panel on biotechnology of
cotton. International Cotton Advisory
A. Rao, Pakistan-GM Cotton Grown.
Available at: http://www.afaa.com.au/ news/n
M. Arshad, A. Suhail, M. Asghar, M. Tayyib
and F. Hafeez, Pakistan. J. Agric. Soc. Sci. 3
G. P. Fitt, Field Evaluation of Transgenic
Cottons in Australia: Environmental
Considerations and Consequences of
Expanding Trial Size. Proceedings of the 3rd
International Symposium on Biosafety
Results of Field Tests of Genetically Modified
Plants and Microorganisms, Monterey,
California (November, 1994) pp. 37-48.
G. P. Head, C. R. Brown, M. E. Groth and
J.J. Duan, Entomologia Experimentalis et
Applicata 99 (2001) 37.
A. Raps, J. Kehr, P. Gugerli., W. J. Moar, F.
Bigler and A. Hilbeck, Molecular Ecology 10
X.Y. Men, F. Ge, X.H. Liu and E.N. Yardim,
Environ. Entomol. 32 (2003) 270.
O.M. Bambawale, A. Singh, O.P. Sharma,
B.B. Bhosle, R.C. Lavekar, A. Dhandapani,
V. Kanwar, R.K. Tanwar, K.S. Rathod, N.R.
Patange and V.M. Pawar, Curr. Sci. 86
G.H. Abro, T.S. Syed, G.M. Tunio and M.A.
Khuhro, Biotechnology 3 (2004) 75.
A. Naveen, D. S. Brar and G. S. Buttar, J.
Cotton Res. Dev. 21 (2007) 106.
H.C. Sharma and G. Pampapathy, Crop Prot.
L. Hanumantharaya, K. Basavana goud and
L.K. Naik, J. Agric. Sci. 21, No.1 (2008) 41.
K. A. Kulkarni, Kambrekar, K.P. Gundannavar, K. Devaraj and S. S. Udikeri, Bio
intensive integrated pest management for Bt
cotton. International Symposium on
strategies for sustainable cotton production,
A Global vision 3. Crop protection,
November, 23-25, 2004, University of
Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka,
India p. 149-151.
M. Tayyib, A. Sohail, Shazia, A. Murtaza and
F.F. Jamil, Pak. Entomol. 27, No.1 (2005) 63.
M.J. Shah, A. Ahmad, M. Hussain, M.M.
Yousaf and B. Ahmad, Pak. Entomol. 29,
No. 2 (2007) 83.
M. Arshad, A. Suhail, M.J. Arif and M.A.
Khan, Int. J. Agric. Biol. 11 (2009) 473.
M. Oâ€™Callaghan, T. R. Glare, E. P. J. Burgess
and L.A. Malone, Annual Review of
Entomology 50 (2005) 271.
C. D. Pilcher, J. J. Obrycki, M. E. Rice and L.
C. Lewis, Environmental Entomology 26
A. Hilbeck, W. J. Moar, M. Pusztai-Carey, A.
Filippini and F. Bigler, Entomologia
Experimentalis et. Applicata 91 (1999) 305.
M. A. Al-Deeb, G. E Wilde and R. A. Higgins,
Environmental Entomology 30 (2001) 625.