• K. M. S. Abdullah Department of Water Resources, College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Iraq
  • R. A. Ramadhan Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Duhok, Iraq


The present study assesses for the first time, the level of background radiation and the environmental radioactivity concentration in Duhok city using both gamma spectroscopy and dosimetry. The objective is to establish a baseline radiation level of the region. The city is located in the northwest in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Using gamma scout radiation meter (dosimetry), the average outdoor dose rate found in the field is 0.16 µSvh-1. Using shielded well type NaI (TI) detector for 30000 sec, the calculated absorbed dose rate in air from terrestrial radiation and 137Cs ranges 21.09-72.14 nGyh-1 with an average of 44.05±1.34 nGyh-1 which is below the world average value. The corresponding average annual effective dose rate is 0.054±0.002 mSvy-1. The mean deposition activity concentration of 137Cs is 9.17±0.47 Bqkg-1 and 17.25 Bqkg-1 for the non-intervened locations. Taking the non-intervened value, the expected contamination of the 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 is 30.2 Bqkg-1. Regarding the depleted uranium (DU) it is found that there is no significant DU trace at 20 sampling locations. Compared with other measurements in different countries we can conclude that the environment of the city is clean and suitable for living.


J. P. Koplan, Toxicological Profile for Ionizing

Radiation, Agency for Toxic Substances and

Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia (1999).

K. Froehlich, Environmental Radionuclides:

Tracers and Timers of Terrestrial Processes,

a companion series to the Journal of

Environmental Radioactivity, Volume sixteen,

Elsevier B.V. (2010).

D. Williams, independent researcher, Eos,

UK, “UNEP Key issues for UN uranium

testing in Iraq, Implications of UNEP

recommendations for Depleted Uranium

studies in Iraqâ€, Copyright © Eos (2003).

S. F. Al-Najar, The Risk of Environmental

Radiological Pollution Consequences of the

use Radiological Depleted Uranium in South

of Iraq, M.Sc. Thesis, College of Science,

Mosul University, Iraq (2001).

UNSCEAR (1988) Ionizing Radiation Sources

and Biological Effects. United Nations

Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic

Radiation, Report to the General Assembly,

New York (1988).

K.A. Tawfiq Aga, Determinants of Investment Climate in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region,

M.Sc. Thesis, College of administration and

economics, Duhok University (2008).

A. I. Abdy, A Study of Some Engineering

Properties of (undisturbed and remolded)

desiccated Soils in Duhok Governorate,

M.Sc. Thesis, College of Engineering, Duhok

University (2003).

S. A. Faqeeh, Areal Expansion for Duhok

City Studying in City Geography, M.Sc.

Thesis, College of Arts, Slah Al. Deen

University (1999).

Gamma-Scout radiation detection, product of

gamma-scout Ltd.

M. Pöschl and L. M. L. Nollet, Radionuclide

Concentrations in Food and the Environment,

Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, USA (2007).

S. Singh, A. Rani and R. K. Mahajan, J.

Radiat. Meas. 39 (2005) 431.

MCD-2, Dual Input Multi-scalar/Multichannel

Analyzer user Manual, FAST ComTec

Communication Technology GmbH, D-82041

Obreaching, Germany (2002).

UNSCEAR, Sources, Effects and Risks of

Ionization Radiation, United Nations Scientific

Committee on the Effects of Atomic

Radiation, Report to the General Assembly,

with Annexes, New York (2000).

A. Manzoor, W. Mohammad, A. Mohammad,

Z.J. Hussain, A. Yasir and S. Farhan, Health

Physics 98, Suppl. 2 (2010) S69.

AVWIRI and G.O, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt.

, No.3 (2005) 27.

S. A. Husseini, J. Appl. Sci. 7, No.20 (2007)

A. Lahham, H. Al-Masri and A. Judeh, J.

Radiat. Protect. Dosim. 135 (2009) 0144.

M. Ngachin, M. Garavaglia, C. Giovani, M.G.

K. Njock and A. Nourreddine, J. Environ.

Radioactivity 99 (2008) 1056.

I.C. Okeyode and A.M. Oluseye, J. Phys.

International 6, No.1 (2010) 1.

O. Kilic, M. Belivermis, S. Topcuoglu, Y.

Cotuk, M. Coskun, A. Cayir and R. Kucer, J.

Radiat. Protect. Dosim. 128, No.3 (2008)

A. Nada, T.M. Abd-El Maksoud, M. Abu-Zeid

Hosnia, T. El-Nagar and S. Awad, J. Appl.

Radiat. Isot. 67 (2009) 643.

M. Tzortzis and H. Tsertos, Gamma-ray

Measurements of Naturally Occurring

Radioactive Samples from Cyprus

Characteristic Geological Rocks, Department

of Physics, University of Cyprus, Nicosia





How to Cite

K. M. S. Abdullah and R. A. Ramadhan, “DETERMINATION OF GAMMA-EMITTING RADIONUCLIDES IN DUHOK CITY, IRAQ”, The Nucleus, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 295–300, Nov. 2011.