Performance Evaluation of Various Algorithms for Cluster Head Selection in WSNs


  • H. Afzal Department of Computer Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • S. Kanwal
  • M. Zulfiqar Department of Telecom System, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.
  • H.B. Gill Department of CS&IT, The Women University Multan, 66000, Pakistan
  • M.R. Mufti COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus Vehari


With the huge growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and massive rise in upcoming electronic devices, network management becomes difficult as it affects the overall performance of the wireless networks. Earlier, in WSN, simple clustering was employed to cover this limitation but over the time, it became evident that without an effective mechanism of the cluster formation and cluster head (CH) selection, effective WSN performance cannot be achieved. As CH selection is one of the important phases of wireless communication, that is why, it becomes essential to enhance this phase. This enhancement reflects the great improvement in the overall performance of WSNs. Different types of methodologies have been introduced in the last 10 years for cluster formation and especially for CH selection. In this article, we investigate some important methodologies such as A-LEACH, MWCSGA, DEEC-Gauss, and eeTMFO/GA of cluster formation and CH selection. From the analysis, significant results such as the energy consumption, reliability, number of alive nodes, the lifetime and throughput of network are computed that can be further utilized in selection of the best algorithm for CH selection.

Author Biography

M.R. Mufti, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus Vehari

Assistant Professor in Department of Computer Science


M. Majid, S. Habib, A.R. Javed, M. Rizwan, G. Srivastava, T.R. Gadekallu and J.C.W. Lin, “Applications of wireless sensor networks and internet of things frameworks in the industry revolution 4.0: A systematic literature review”, Sensors, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2087, 2022.

R. Sinde, F. Begum, K. Njau and S. Kaijage, “Refining network lifetime of wireless sensor network using energy-efficient clustering and DRL-based sleep scheduling”, Sensors, vol. 20, no. 5, pp.1540, 2020.

P.S. Mehra, M.N. Doja and B. Alam, “Fuzzy based enhanced cluster head selection (FBECS) for WSN”, J. King Saud Univ. Sci., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 390-401, 2020.

G.A. Safdar, T.S. Syed and M. Ur-Rehman, “Fuzzy Logic-Based Cluster Head Election-Led Energy Efficiency in History-Assisted Cognitive Radio Networks”, IEEE Sens. J., vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 22117-22126, 2022.

T.K. Jain, D.S. Saini and S.V. Bhooshan, “Cluster head selection in a homogeneous wireless sensor network ensuring full connectivity with minimum isolated nodes”, J. Sens, vol. 2014, pp. 724219, 2014.

D. Jia, H. Zhu, S. Zou and P. Hu, “Dynamic cluster head selection method for wireless sensor network”, IEEE Sens. J., vol.16, no. 8, pp. 2746-2754, 2015.

P.S. Mehra, M.N. Doja and B. Alam, “Fuzzy Based Enhanced Cluster Head Selection (FBECS) for WSN”, J. King Saud Univ. Sci., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 390-401, 2018.

N. Shivappa and S.S. Manvi, “Fuzzy-based cluster head selection and cluster formation in wireless sensor networks”, IET Netw., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 390-397, 2019.

P.K. Dutta, M.K. Naskar and O.P. Mishra, “Impact of two-level fuzzy cluster head selection model for wireless sensor network: An Energy efficient approach in remote monitoring scenarios”, arXiv preprint arXiv:1308.0690, 2013.

B.M. Khan, R. Bilal and R. Young, “Fuzzy-TOPSIS based cluster head selection in mobile wireless sensor networks”, J. Electr. Eng. Technol, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 928-943, 2018.

A.A. Baradaran and K. Navi, “HQCA-WSN: High-quality clustering algorithm and optimal cluster head selection using fuzzy logic in wireless sensor networks”, Fuzzy Sets Syst., vol. 389, pp. 114-144, 2020.

M. Senthil, V. Rajamani and G.R. Kanagachidambaresan, “Energy-efficient cluster head selection for life time enhancement of wireless sensor networks”, J. Inf. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 676. 2014.

A.F. Jemal, R.H. Hussen, D. Y.Kim, Z. Li, T. Pei and Y.J. Choi, “Energy-efficient selection of cluster headers in wireless sensor networks”, Int. J. Distrib. Sens., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1550147718764642, 2018.

G.P. Agbulu, G.J.R. Kumar and A.V. Juliet, “A lifetime-enhancing cooperative data gathering and relaying algorithm for cluster-based wireless sensor networks”, Int. J. Distrib. Sens., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 1550147719900111, 2020.

X.S. Yang, “Flower pollination algorithm for global optimization”, 11th Int. conf. unconv. Comput. Nat. computation, Orléan, France, September 3-7, 2012, pp. 240-249, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.

T.K. Dao, T.T. Nguyen, J.S. Pan, Y. Qiao and Q.A. Lai, “Identification failure data for cluster heads aggregation in WSN based on improving classification of SVM”, IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 61070-61084. 2020.

W. Osamy, A.A. El-Sawy and A. Salim, “CSOCA: Chicken swarm optimization based clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks”, IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 60676-60688, 2020.

N. Ajmi, A. Helali, P. Lorenz and R. Mghaieth, “MWCSGA—Multi Weight Chicken Swarm Based Genetic Algorithm for Energy Efficient Clustered Wireless Sensor Network”, Sensors, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 791, 2021.

R. Sharma, V. Vashisht and U. Singh, “eeTMFO/GA: a secure and energy efficient cluster head selection in wireless sensor networks”, Telecommun Syst., vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 253-268, 2020.

A.O.A Salem and N. Shudifat, “Enhanced LEACH protocol for increasing a lifetime of WSNs”, Pers Ubiquitous Comput., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 901-907, 2019.

P. Saini and A.K. Sharma, “E-DEEC-enhanced distributed energy efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous WSN”, 1st IEEE Int. conf. parallel, distrib. grid comput. (PDGC 2010), Solan, India, pp. 205-210, 2010,

O.J. Aroba, N. Naicker and T. Adeliyi, “A Hyper-Heuristic Heterogeneous Multisensor Node Scheme for Energy Efficiency in Larger Wireless Sensor Networks Using DEEC-Gaussian Algorithm”, Mob. Inf. Syst., vol. 2021, pp. 6658840, 2021.

D.L. Reddy, C. Puttamadappa and H.N. Suresh, “Merged glowworm swarm with ant colony optimization for energy efficient clustering and routing in Wireless Sensor Network”, Pervasive Mob Comput., vol. 71, pp. 101338, 2021.

A. Rahiminasab, P. Tirandazi, M.J. Ebadi, A. Ahmadian and M. Salimi, “An energy-aware method for selecting cluster heads in wireless sensor networks”, Appl. Sci., vol. 10, no. 21, pp. 7886, 2020.

K.N. Qureshi, M.U. Bashir, , J. Lloret and A. Leon, “Optimized cluster-based dynamic energy-aware routing protocol for wireless sensor networks in agriculture precision”, J. Sens., vol. 2020, pp. 1-19, 2020.

S.J. Jassbi and E. Moridi, “Fault tolerance and energy efficient clustering algorithm in wireless sensor networks: FTEC”, Wirel. Pers. Commun., vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 373-391. 2019.

J.G. Lee, S. Chim and H.H. Park, “Energy-efficient cluster-head selection for wireless sensor networks using sampling-based spider monkey optimization”, Sensors, vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 5281, 2019.

L. Zhao, S. Qu and Y. Yi, “A modified cluster-head selection algorithm in wireless sensor networks based on LEACH”, EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw, vol. 2018, no. 1, pp.1-8, 2018.

T. Rahman, I. Ullah, A.U. Rehman and R.A. Naqvi, “Notice of violation of IEEE publication principles: Clustering Schemes in MANETs: Performance Evaluation, Open Challenges, and Proposed Solutions”, IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 25135-25158, 2020.

P.K. Batra and K. Kant, “LEACH-MAC: a new cluster head selection algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Wirel. Netw, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 49-60, 2016.

S. Gajjar, M. Sarkar and K. Dasgupta, “Cluster head selection protocol using fuzzy logic for wireless sensor networks”, Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 97, no. 7, 2014.

C. So-In, K. Udompongsuk, C. Phudphut, K. Rujirakul and C. Khunboa, “Performance evaluation of LEACH on cluster head selection techniques in wireless sensor networks”, 9th Int. Conf. Comput. Inf. Technol. (IC2IT2013), May 9-10, 2013, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 51-61.

A.S. Toor and A.K. Jain, “Energy aware cluster based multi-hop energy efficient routing protocol using multiple mobile nodes (MEACBM) in wireless sensor networks”, AEU - Int. J. Electron. Commun, vol. 102, pp. 41-53, 2019.

G. Krishnasamy, “An Energy Aware Fuzzy Trust based Clustering with group key Management in MANET Multicasting” Proc. Int. Conf. Comput. Sci. Netw (ICTCS), pp. 1-5, 2019.




How to Cite

H. Afzal, S. Kanwal, M. Zulfiqar, H. Gill, and M. Mufti, “Performance Evaluation of Various Algorithms for Cluster Head Selection in WSNs”, The Nucleus, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 35–44, Apr. 2023.