The Nucleus <p>"The Nucleus" is an open-access, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary scientific journal published regularly since 1964. It is accredited as Y-category journal of HEC and published bi-annually. All contents of 'The Nucleus' are available free of cost to the users or their institutions. The journal is being published electronically as well as in hard form. Research scholars, faculty members, and academicians of various disciplines (natural and applied sciences) are welcome to submit their novel contributions in the form of original manuscripts. Publisher will promote published articles worldwide through different media following the open access regulations. The motto of 'The Nucleus' is to promote flawless and unbiased research information and data transparently following the already laid international publishing standards.</p> <p><strong><!--a href='#' id="fullscope" >Read More >></a--></strong></p> PAKISTAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION en-US The Nucleus 0029-5698 Emotion Detection for Cryptocurrency Tweets Using Machine Learning Algorithms <p class="NuclAbstract">Cryptocurrencies, functioning as digital currencies, undergo regular fluctuations in the present market, reflecting the emotional aspect of the cryptocurrency realm. It is a well-established fact that sentiment is linked to Bitcoin and Ethereum values, employing a Twitter-based strategy to predict changes. While prospective Bitcoin returns do not display a correlation with emotional variables, indicators of emotions tend to anticipate Bitcoin exchange volume and return volatility. Emotions wield an influence over a broad spectrum of financial investor returns, thereby, potentially affecting market dynamics by triggering significant price shifts. The research delves into gauging emotional factors extracted from 2,050,202 posts on, investigating how these emotions impact Bitcoin's price fluctuations. We have used a unified dataset named 'data F' in which all categories of emotions are consolidated. Subsequently, data preprocessing steps are implemented to cleanse the dataset. Two feature engineering techniques, namely TF-IDF and BoW are employed. The research explores ten supervised machine learning (ML) models as classifiers, with four of these models (LR, Stochastic Gradient Descent, SVM and GB) yielding the highest accuracy at 0.93%.</p> Bushra Fareed Mujeeb Ur Rehman Mumtaz Ali Shah Akbar Hussain Khudija Bibi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-02 2024-01-02 61 1 1 9 On the Elliptical Orbit of the Earth and Position of the Sun in the Sky: An Engineering Approach <p>The position of the Sun as seen by an observer on the Earth’s surface and the position and velocity vectors of the Earth revolving in an elliptical orbit around the Sun can be calculated using several computational approaches. These approaches include (but are not limited to) the use of an analytical approach; a numerical approach, and the use of a Solar Position Algorithm (PSA). In the analytical methodology, the Earth’s momentum equation is transformed to eliminate its time dependence, and the equation is solved analytically. Whereas, using the numerical approach, the dimensionless momentum equation of the revolving Earth is written in the polar coordinate system (r, θ) and solved numerically. The solar position algorithm known as PSA (Plataforma Solar de Almeria, abbreviated from its Spanish origin:, is a numerical algorithm that uses several empirical relations to calculate the solar declination and the ecliptic longitude angles, etc. The algorithm uses Cartesian coordinate system to calculate the dimensionless coordinates of the pole star (Polaris) and its declination angle to calculate the position vector of an observer that rotates with the Earth. This coordinate system is referred to as a new Cartesian coordinate system whose origin is located at the center of the Earth. The solar elevation angle and azimuth angle are obtained by performing a set of rotations of this new Cartesian coordinate system. In this article, we have used basic physical principles (analytical approach) to obtain the main parameters of the Sun’s trajectory and position, at certain time in the sky. The methodology presented here can easily be used by professionals and engineers working in the area of solar/alternate energy, as well as for the design of intelligent/green buildings/cities for a sustainable environment.</p> Ruben Avila Shoaib Raza Syed Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-02 2024-01-02 61 1 10 15 Role of Neutron Beam Applications in the Sustainable Socio-Economic Development of Pakistan <p>Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) is the largest multidisciplinary research and development center in Pakistan. It has two research reactors namely PARR-1 and PARR-2. Neutron beam facilities have been installed only around PARR-1. It is a multipurpose research reactor that has been mostly utilized for the production of radioisotope and the training of scientists, engineers and technicians. The reactor is also utilized in the studies of neutron reaction cross-sections, nuclear structure, fission physics, radiation damage in crystals and semi-conductors, studies of geological, biological and environmental samples by neutron activation techniques, gemstone coloration, neutron radiography and neutron scattering. We have been investigating lattice dynamics, crystal and magnetic structure of materials and residual stress measurement using neutron scattering. In this manner, PARR-1 is effectively contributing to the socio-economic development of Pakistan.</p> Khurram Shahzad M. Nasir Khan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 61 1 16 21 Calculation of Solar Trajectory in the Sky and Solar Analemma as Observed from the Earth <p>In a previous companion paper “On the elliptical orbit of the Earth and the position of the Sun in the sky: an engineering approach,” published in The NUCLEUS, we presented various computational methodologies for the position/trajectory of the Sun in the sky of an observer at Earth [1]. In this paper, the methodology for calculation of solar analemma (as observed from the earth surface) has been presented, along with an elaboration of the “Equation of Time,” as called in literature [2,3]. The computational methodologies presented in the earlier paper included: 1) an analytical approach; 2) a numerical algorithm; and 3) a Solar Position Algorithm commonly abbreviated as PSA from the Spanish name of its developer Plataforma Solar de Almería [4]. In the numerical approach, Earth’s momentum equation written in a polar coordinate system (r, <em>θ</em>) was numerically solved. It was also demonstrated that if the Earth’s momentum equation was transformed to eliminate the time dependence, it could be solved analytically. In this paper, a Cartesian coordinate system is used to calculate the coordinates of the pole star (Polaris) and its declination angle. The position vector of an observer that rotates with the Earth is calculated using a new Cartesian coordinate system, whose origin is located at the center of the Earth. The solar elevation angle and the solar azimuth angle are obtained by performing a set of rotations of this new coordinate system. Towards the end, the Equation of Time (EOT) is explained and used for calculating the solar analemma.</p> Shoaib Raza S. Ruben Avila R. Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-18 2024-03-18 61 1 22 30